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Cane Sugar Icumsa 45-100-150


Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a perennial grass in the family Poaceae. It is cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions for the sucrose that is found in its stems. It requires a frost-free climate with sufficient rainfall during the growing season to make full use of the plant's great growth potential. The crop is harvested mechanically or by hand, chopped into lengths and conveyed rapidly to the processing plant. Here it is either milled and the juice extracted with water or the sugar is extracted by diffusion. The juice is then clarified with lime and heated to kill enzymes. The resulting thin syrup is concentrated in a series of evaporators after which further water is removed by evaporation in vacuum containers. The resulting supersaturated solution is seeded with sugar crystals and the sugar crystallizes out, is separated from the fluid and dried. Molasses is a by-product of the process and the fibre from the stems, known as bagasse, is burned to provide energy for the sugar extraction process. The crystals of raw sugar have a sticky brown coating and can either be used as they are or can be bleached by sulphur dioxide or treated in a carbonatation process to produce a whiter product.



The five largest producers of sugar in 2011 were Brazil, India, the European Union, China and Thailand. In the same year, much the largest exporter of sugar was Brazil, distantly followed by Thailand, Australia and India. The largest importers were the European Union, United States and Indonesia. Currently, Brazil has the highest per capita consumption of sugar, followed by Australia, Thailand and the European Union.

Producing countries

World sugar production (1000 metric tons) 

Country

2007/08

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

Brazil

31,600

31,850

36,400

38,350

35,750

India

28,630

15,950

20,637

26,650

28,300

European Union

15,614

14,014

16,687

15,090

16,740

China

15,898

13,317

11,429

11,199

11,840

Thailand

7,820

7,200

6,930

9,663

10,170

United States

7,396

6,833

7,224

7,110

7,153

Mexico

5,852

5,260

5,115

5,495

5,650

Russia

3,200

3,481

3,444

2,996

4,800

Pakistan

4,163

3,512

3,420

3,920

4,220

Australia

4,939

4,814

4,700

3,700

4,150

Other

38,424

37,913

37,701

37,264

39,474


Consumption

In most parts of the world, sugar is an important part of the human diet, making food more palatable and providing food energy. After cereals and vegetable oils, sugar derived from sugar cane and beet provided more kilocalories per capita per day on average than other food groups.[51] According to the FAO, an average of 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day, was consumed annually per person of all ages in the world in 1999. Even with rising human populations, sugar consumption is expected to increase to 25.1 kilograms (55 lb) per person per year by 2015

World sugar consumption (1000 metric tons) [53]

Country

2007/08

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

2012/13

India

22,021

23,500

22,500

23,500

25,500

26,500

European Union

16,496

16,760

17,400

17,800

17,800

17,800

China

14,250

14,500

14,300

14,000

14,400

14,900

Brazil

11,400

11,650

11,800

12,000

11,500

11,700

United States

9,590

9,473

9,861

10,086

10,251

10,364

Other

77,098

76,604

77,915

78,717

80,751

81,750

Total

150,855

152,487

153,776

156,103

160,202

163,014

 

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